The simplest way of playing a sound file from Csound is to use the diskin2 opcode. This opcode reads audio directly from the hard drive location where it is stored, i.e. it does not pre-load the sound file at initialisation time. This method of sound file playback is therefore good for playing back very long, or parts of very long, sound files. It is perhaps less well suited to playing back sound files where dense polyphony, multiple iterations and rapid random access to the file is required. In these situations reading from a function table or buffer is preferable.
diskin2 has additional parameters for speed of playback, and interpolation.
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> -odac ; activate real-time audio output </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ; example written by Iain McCurdy sr = 44100 ksmps = 32 nchnls = 1 instr 1 ; play audio from disk kSpeed init 1 ; playback speed iSkip init 0 ; inskip into file (in seconds) iLoop init 0 ; looping switch (0=off 1=on) ; read audio from disk using diskin2 opcode a1 diskin2 "loop.wav", kSpeed, iSkip, iLoop out a1 ; send audio to outputs endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 6 e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
The traditional method of rendering Csound's audio to disk is to specify a sound file as the audio destination in the Csound command or under <CsOptions>, in fact before real-time performance became a possibility this was the only way in which Csound was used. With this method, all audio that is piped to the output using out, outs etc. will be written to this file. The number of channels that the file will conatain will be determined by the number of channels specified in the orchestra header using 'nchnls'. The disadvantage of this method is that we cannot simultaneously listen to the audio in real-time.
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> ; audio output destination is given as a sound file (wav format specified) ; this method is for deferred time performance, ; simultaneous real-time audio will not be possible -oWriteToDisk1.wav -W </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ; example written by Iain McCurdy sr = 44100 ksmps = 32 nchnls = 1 0dbfs = 1 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 4096, 10, 1 ; a sine wave instr 1 ; a simple tone generator aEnv expon 0.2, p3, 0.001 ; a percussive envelope aSig poscil aEnv, cpsmidinn(p4), giSine ; audio oscillator out aSig ; send audio to output endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> ; two chords i 1 0 5 60 i 1 0.1 5 65 i 1 0.2 5 67 i 1 0.3 5 71 i 1 3 5 65 i 1 3.1 5 67 i 1 3.2 5 73 i 1 3.3 5 78 e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
Recording audio output to disk whilst simultaneously monitoring in real-time is best achieved through combining the opcodes monitor and fout. 'monitor' can be used to create an audio signal that consists of a mix of all audio output from all instruments. This audio signal can then be rendered to a sound file on disk using 'fout'. 'monitor' can read multi-channel outputs but its number of outputs should correspond to the number of channels defined in the header using 'nchnls'. In this example it is reading just in mono. 'fout' can write audio in a number of formats and bit depths and it can also write multi-channel sound files.
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> -odac ; activate real-time audio output </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;example written by Iain McCurdy sr = 44100 ksmps = 32 nchnls = 1 0dbfs = 1 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 4096, 10, 1 ; a sine wave gaSig init 0; set initial value for global audio variable (silence) instr 1 ; a simple tone generator aEnv expon 0.2, p3, 0.001 ; percussive amplitude envelope aSig poscil aEnv, cpsmidinn(p4), giSine ; audio oscillator out aSig endin instr 2 ; write to a file (always on in order to record everything) aSig monitor ; read audio from output bus fout "WriteToDisk2.wav",4,aSig ; write audio to file (16bit mono) endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> ; activate recording instrument to encapsulate the entire performance i 2 0 8.3 ; two chords i 1 0 5 60 i 1 0.1 5 65 i 1 0.2 5 67 i 1 0.3 5 71 i 1 3 5 65 i 1 3.1 5 67 i 1 3.2 5 73 i 1 3.3 5 78 e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer
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